The Design and Linearization of 60GHz Injection Locked Power Amplifier
Abstract: The RF power amplifier is one of the most critical blocks of transceivers, as it is expected to provide a suitable output power with high gain, efficiency and linearity.
In this paper, a 60-GHz power amplifier based on an injection locked structure is demonstrated in a standard 65 CMOS technology. The PA core consists of a cross-coupled pair of NMOS transistors with an NMOS current source. This structure can achieve large output power and high PAE, but with poor linearity performance. In order to improve the linearity, several linearization techniques are investigated, including adaptive biasing and predistortion. The results show that the adaptive biasing technique can enlarge the linear operation region, but results in poor AM-PM performance. By instead using the predistortion technique, the AM-PM performance can be improved, but the linear region only extends slightly. Considering theses two techniques different advantages, we combine them together to improve not only the linear region but also the AM-PM performance.
Finally, a common source amplifier is added as the first stage. With proper bias, the linear operation region is then effectively extended by 7.3 dB. This two stage power amplifier achieves large output power, high linearity and high PAE simultaneously. It delivers a gain of 20dB, a Psat of 16.3dBm, a P1dB of 15.41dBm, and a PAE of 30%.
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