The Metal Content in Airborne Particles in Landskrona
Abstract: Landskrona has for a long time had problems with high concentrations of Pb and other heavy metals in the air. Measurements investigating the content of airborne particles have been performed in 1977, 1988, 2003 and 2008 and show an influence from heavy industries, traffic in town and transboundary pollution. To investigate the air quality in terms of heavy metals in Landskrona today, the metal concentrations in atmospheric aerosol particles (airborne particles) will be determined and the sources contributing to them will be assessed. Aerosol sampling was performed with stacked filter units at two locations, a small harbour (Lundåkrahamnen) and at the town hall (Stadshuset) in Landskrona between 15 February and 23 March, 2017. Aerosol sampling occurred daily on filters and the elemental concentrations were determined by particle induced X-ray emission (PIXE). The elemental analysis works for inorganic elements from Sodium to Uranium, for which some can be detected in concentrations around 1 ng/m3 and others significantly lower. The elemental concentrations were modelled with Positive Matrix Factorization (PMF), a source-receptor model, from which the results provide and describe source profiles and source contributions in absolute levels ng/m3.The sources were identified by analysing characteristic elements and meteorology data. Compared to the measurements in 2008, the average concentrations for most elements are higher. In the previous campaigns, basically all elements decreased gradually from 1977 to 2008 but in 2017 the downward trend was not observed. Increased average concentrations for both lead (Pb) and zinc (Zn) were observed at Lundåkrahamnen however not at Stadshuset. The average concentration of chlorine (Cl) showed a great increase at both Lundåkrahamnen and Stadshuset compared to previous years and is explained by more winds from the sea and higher wind speeds. The results from the PMF shows that there are 6 sources contributing to the elemental concentrations in the atmospheric aerosols in Landskrona. The sources are: a soil dust source, a sea spray source, a combustion source, a lead source, a copper and zinc source and a long-range transport source. The long-range transport source was only of importance for the elemental concentrations in fine particles and contribute with a part of the lead concentration. The lead source and copper/zinc source originate both from the local industrial area, where the lead source is likely to be linked to Boliden Bergsöe AB and the copper/zinc source to the shipyard. The combustion source is highly affected by emissions from marine traffic in Öresund. The aerosol sampling in Landskrona shows elevated concentrations of lead, zinc and copper in the air. Local sources located in the industrial area are the main contributors to the heavy metal concentrations. Although the average concentrations are not alarming and well below the Environmental quality standards (EQS), the risks for chronic lead exposures should be minimised by identifying important processes giving rise to particulate emissions or by applying stricter EQS.
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