Maritime freight transportation and the impact of regulatory changes : A comparison between Spain and Sweden
Abstract: Maritime freight is a sector of high importance in the ﬁeld of international trade. During the last decades, maritime freight transportation has been growing progressively, nowa- days, in order to transport large quantities of materials and save great distances, it is the most used transport system. The maritime freight transport involves a large num- ber of companies, which generates a greater number of jobs and acquires an additional importance for the economy and trade of the country. However, in order to maritime transportation to be in optimal conditions, it must be accompanied by a network of infrastructures and strategic points that allow diﬀerent companies to carry out their func- tions. Nowadays, large quantities of goods are transported through the sea, this is why a regulatory framework is needed to control the various limitations and restrictions that must be imposed at sea. The organization in charge of this work is the so-called SOLAS (Safety of Life At Sea), which is part of the United Nations department. This organi- zation is responsible, as mentioned above, for safety at sea for ships and goods, it acts according to the current situation and responding to diﬀerent disasters. As a result of certain accidents, whether navigation or breakage, the last law that has implemented is known as Veriﬁed Gross Mass (VGM). This thesis is divided into two parts, the ﬁrst one analyses the importance of maritime transport for the countries of Spain and Sweden. It will show the repercussion it has on the country and its diﬀerent connections to transport the goods through the country, as well as future trends to move these goods for each country as well. To conclude this part, a comparison will be made between both countries. Secondly, a study will be car- ried out on the eﬀect of the law that was implemented dated back on 1 July 2016, the so-called Veriﬁed Gross Mass. A study is carried out in order to assess the challenges and opportunities generated by this law for the diﬀerent stakeholders involved in maritime transport and how they have been acting in the countries of Spain and Sweden. Hence, ﬁ- nal conclusions can be obtained regarding the conduct of each stakeholder in each country. Finally, the importance of road transport as the large transport system will be high- lighted in combination with the maritime transportation in both countries. On the other hand, regulatory changes will make a cooperation between stakeholders in order to reduce the impact in their activity.
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