The Price of a Green Consciousness : Social impacts of carbon forestry projects
Abstract: Scholars and civil society organizations have over the last decade referred to large-scale carbon sequestration TPPs as "carbon colonialism" (Carmody and Taylor, 2016) as well as a "development by dispossession" dressed in new clothing behind words such as climate change mitigation and development (Kröger, 2012). Concerns have been raised that the trade-offs from the implementation of industrial tree plantations (ITPs) may result in conflicting effects on countries' overall development (The Oakland Institute, 2019; Osborne, 2015; Nel & Hill, 2013). Moreover, NGO's and think tanks, such as FIAN (2012) and the Oakland Institute (2017, 2019), have released reports in which such tree planting projects are accused of displacing people and violating human rights (FIAN, 2012; The Oakland Institute, 2017, 2019; Carmody & Taylor, 2016). This thesis explores the impacts of carbon forestry projects, emphasizing the impacts of ITPs on local livelihoods and their subsequent effects on development. Three dimensions have been chosen to limit the scope of this thesis: (1) food security; (2) access to land; and (3) employment & income. The thesis is conducted using a qualitative desk study and secondary analysis of two multiple case studies of Uganda and Mozambique. The findings presented suggest carbon forestry projects may negatively affect all three dimensions, ultimately affecting communities' sustainable development. The author recommends further research to evaluate the complex effects of carbon forestry projects.
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