Technology and Energy Inventory of Ice Rinks

University essay from KTH/Tillämpad termodynamik och kylteknik

Abstract:

Currently 341 ice rinks are in operation in Sweden with an estimated total energy consumption of 384 GWh/year. As it has been revealed in previous studies, most of the ice arenas are constructed and/or not operated efficiently. Thus it is considerable energy saving potential, which could be achieved in this area. The potential is even more significant if one can consider the savings in the ice rinks all over the world.

This report is an in-depth study, which aims at analysing the Swedish ice rinks energy consumption and estimation of the corresponding energy saving potential. The report analyses the energy statistics obtained through the Stoppsladd study, which includes the ice rinks inventory, data collection and compilation of energy relevant data for 100 ice rinks located in Sweden. The inventory has revealed a number of important statistical figures, such as total energy consumption average in total (estimated to be 1,137 MWh/year) and for different ice arenas categories in particular. Relevant specific energy consumption values as well as a number of other important figures are also provided in the paper, thus giving an idea on the way to minimise energy consumption at each specific ice rink. The results are additionally supported by statistical multifactor regression analysis, which resulted in a relation between the ice rink’s total energy consumption and some known factors values affecting it.

Two in-depth studies fulfil the Stoppsladd project by analysing water quality and ice quality effect on the ice rink’s energy consumption and investigation of the static and dynamic heat flow distribution in ice rink slab.

A static heat flow distribution model of an ice rink evaluated the effect of concrete  with different properties on temperature and heat flow distribution within an ice rink floor slab. The study proves that the ice rink refrigeration system COP2 could be increased with 3.5 % just implementing new high thermal conductivity concrete layer into the conventional concrete ice rink floor.

The static analysis results were further completed with dynamic analysis, which adequately reflects the thermodynamic response of the concrete ice rink floor to a varying heat load.

As a result, the thesis represents a holistic approach to the ice rink energy efficiency increase problem and provides a good basis for further studies in relevant areas. It is proved that modified concrete allowing higher (efficient) secondary refrigerant tempera­tures and also provides better response to change in heat load to the system.

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