Time Perspective and Self-Reported Everyday Memory Problems : Associations Beyond Perceived Stress
Abstract: Time Perspective (TP) describes the attitude individuals have towards the past, present, and future. This study investigated the associations between TP and self-reported everyday prospective and retrospective memory problems, controlling for stress. Ninety-five participants (18-60 years) completed an online survey which included the Swedish Zimbardo Time Perspective Inventory (S-ZTPI), the Prospective Retrospective Memory Questionnaire, and the 10-item Perceived Stress Scale. Bivariate correlation analysis revealed that Past Negative, Present Fatalistic, and Future Negative views were associated with more self-reported prospective and retrospective memory problems. Moreover, a Future Positive view was associated with better prospective memory scores. TP biases were assessed using the Deviations From a Balanced Time Perspective measure (DBTP). Hierarchal regression analyses revealed that DBTP accounted for almost 30% of the variance in prospective memory scores and for 25% of the variance in retrospective memory scores, beyond stress. Taken together, the results show a significant link between TP and self-reported everyday memory problems. Future studies should take other variables such as depression, anxiety, mood, and personality into account to shed further light on the association between TP and everyday memory problems. Regarding practical implications, interventions that are aimed at promoting a balanced TP might be used to enhance everyday memory ability.
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