Network Densification and Energy Efficiency

University essay from Lunds universitet/Institutionen för elektro- och informationsteknik

Abstract: The galloping pace of development in the field of wireless communication has left the world astounded over the last decade. But this has also led to a wild and inexcusable extravagant expenditure of energy. Due to the dynamic nature of wireless network, it has become imperative to focus more on energy efficiency and achieve desired Quality of Service (QoS). The challenge of diminishing the carbon footprint and cutting down the operating expenditures and keeping up with the bludgeoning demand for coverage and capacity is the main driving force or motivation behind studying energy efficiency of mobile networks and to delve into the latest research on power saving features. Long Term Evolution (LTE) is our prime topic of focus as it has within a small span of time proved to be the right technology to cater to the requirements of the ever-growing demand and is widely considered to be the answer to future's new and existing wireless networks. The provision of quality service has to take into consideration the maximum utilization of LTE resources as it is profitable to both the operators and the environment. To be in harmony with this arrangement the requirements on energy performance will appertain to the specifications of immediate 5G networks. In LTE networks, indoor small cells are deployed in large volume to boost performance in areas with lousy macro coverage or high traffic demand that has botched the entire network. This type of network topology, that involves a mix of radio technologies and cell types working immaculately in a well organized manner is called a heterogeneous network (HetNet). An attempt has been made to study the energy efficiency of various Het-Net deployments in disparate environments (dense urban, urban, sub-urban and rural). The small cells deployments examined are pico base stations and micro distributed-antenna-systems. A comparison has been made between dense and sparse deployment strategies with varying transmit powers. Furthermore, an investigation has been carried out to identify the potential for energy savings by placing the small cells into a low power sleep state under certain established conditions. Both brief sleep periods between transmissions which could be described like momentary muting, called discontinuous transmission (DTX), and lengthier sleep cycles during periods of little activity has been investigated. This thesis was carried out as a project at Ericsson Systems & Technology in Lund, Sweden 2016.

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