Health Risks of VOCs and Aldehydes in Indoor Air : A Case Study of Three Beauty Salons and a Gym
Abstract: People tend to spend more and more time indoors, constantly breathing indoor air. In indoor air there is a mixture of chemicals from both the outdoor air, which is let in through the ventilation systems, and from the materials and products that are used indoors. To maintain good health, good indoor air quality (IAQ) is essential, not only at home but also at work. Some workplaces are more prone to air contamination than others, beauty salons being a great example. This is simply because a large number of products are used, all with a complex composition of different substances. In this study, the concentrations of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) and aldehydes are measured in the air of different types of beauty salons and a gym. Three different types of beauty salons are included; one hair salon using traditional hair products, one hair salon using organic products and the third salon is a nail salon. The gym is included as a reference facility where low emissions of VOCs and aldehydes are expected. Also, a sample of the outdoor air in central Örebro is taken to be able to conclude that the indoor pollution is indeed from indoor sources, using indoor/outdoor ratio (I/O ratio). To evaluate the risk associated with the measured concentrations of VOCs and aldehydes a new approach using chronic limit values for calculation of hazard index (HI) and maximum cumulative ratio (MCR) is used as well as the Swedish occupational exposure limits. HI is calculated by adding all substances in the mixture’s hazard quotients (HQs), which is the measured concentration divided by the limit value. The HI is an indication of the strength of the toxicity of the mixture where a value above 1 is of concern, whereas MCR is used to identify if one or several substances are responsible for the total toxicity by dividing the HI by the maximum HQ in the mixture. The results showed a low risk for all sampling sites, except personal sampling in salon 3, where HI > 1 and MCR>2, which means concern for combined effect by several substances.
AT THIS PAGE YOU CAN DOWNLOAD THE WHOLE ESSAY. (follow the link to the next page)