Shaft Current Protection

University essay from KTH/Industriella informations- och styrsystem


Shaft current protection in hydro and turbo generators is an important generatorprotection issue. Currents owing in the generator shaft might damagegenerator bearings which, in turn, could reduce operating time and cause largenancial losses. Therefore, it is important to prevent operation of the generatorunder conditions of high shaft currents.In this project, task was to develop measurement and protection system thatis able to operate under certain conditions. Measurement device has to be ableto accurately measure currents lower than 1 A in a generator shaft that canvary in diameter from 16 cm up to 3 m. Also, those currents might appear infrequencies equal to multiples of line frequency. Device is to be located in alimited space and in a proximity of the generator. Thus, stray ux is expectedwhich might inuence measurements. Furthermore, since currents that haveto be measured are low, output of a measurement device is usually a low levelsignal. Such signal had to be catered for and adapted in a way that it can beused with numerical relay. After literature review and overview of possible solutions, Rogowski coil waschosen as the measurement device which will be further analysed. Two othercurrent transformers were considered which served as a good comparison withRogowski coil. Several dierent tests and measurements were made on mentionedmeasurement devices. Also, it was investigated how IEC61850-9-2 andMerging Unit (MU) could be used in this application. Upon this investigation,complete protection systems were assembled in the laboratory and they weretested. To asses the behaviour of dierent systems in the real environment, test installationwas built in the hydro power plant, Hallstahammar. This installationincluded traditional systems, with measurement signals connected to the relaya,and the one which utilized concepts of Process Bus and Merging Unit. Measurementsand tests that were made there served as a nal proof of successfulnessof protection systems. Results showed that Rogowski coil was a suitable choice for a measurementdevice due to its benecial mechanical and electrical properties. Also, tests madewith actual shaft current showed advantages of using Rogowski coil in pair withMerging Unit and process bus over traditional protection systems. Nevertheless,it was conrmed that both types of systems satisfy project requirements.

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