Hydrodynamic modelling and estimation of exchange rates for Bardawil Lagoon, Egypt. An investigation of governing forces and physical processes using numerical models.
Abstract: Bardawil Lagoon, a natural lagoon located on the northern coast of the Sinai Peninsula, Egypt, there are three inlets of which two are man-made connecting the lagoon with the Mediterranean Sea. The inlets are subjected to changes in morphology, due to sediment transport, over time and this may lead to degrees of closure of either inlet. The sediment transport is governed by longshore currents and the sediments originate from the eroding Nile delta. Inlet closure adversely affects the lagoon water quality which will have a detrimental effect on the ecosystem. In this dissertation the dominant coastal processes governing the water exchange between the lagoon and the Mediterranean are studied. Finite element conceptual computer models are applied to simulate and investigate the hydrodynamics of the inlets and the lagoon itself. Two types of models are applied within the Surface Modelling System (SMS) software; ADCIRC, a regional tidal model and CMS-Flow, a local circulation model. In order to estimate the exchange rate of the lagoon two methods are utilized; based on net intertidal volume and cross sectional flow through the inlets. The methods show a high degree of correlation. The renewal time was estimated to 9.0 days, which is equivalent to a daily replaced volume of 53?106 m3. Tidal forcing governs the water exchange while wind is responsible for the internal circulation.
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