A Fabry–Pérot Cavity for Rare-Earth-Ion-Doped Nanocrystals

University essay from Lunds universitet/Atomfysik; Lunds universitet/Fysiska institutionen

Abstract: This thesis work contributes to the effort of detecting single rare earth ions doped into crystals, an operation crucial for the development of rare earth quantum computer hardware. Doping crystals with rare earth elements, their trivalent ions substitute some of the crystal’s original bonds. These ions have a partially filled 4f shell, protected by the full 5s and 5p shell from the environment which makes them good candidates for qubits. Because not every ion experiences the same electric field from the imperfect crystal, their total linewidth is inhomogeneously broadened. If the doping is sufficiently low and the crystal sufficiently small, each ion undergoes a different optical shift and can thus be addressed separately. Communication between ions happens due to their permanent dipole moments which change according to their energy level. So far no single ions could be detected in Lund because highly doped bulk crystals were used. It was nevertheless tried to construct quantum logic gates using qubits that consisted of an ensemble of ions. Constructing logic gates with these means that every single ion of one qubit needs to be able to communicate with every single ion of another qubit, a method that becomes increasingly difficult when more and more qubits are to be entangled. Connecting as many qubits as possible is a crucial step in building a quantum computer that could outperform classical computers and this could be facilitated if every qubit consisted of only one ion which is the reason for the recent explorations towards nano crystals. This development also makes it possible to address another problem of rare earth ions, their low probability of spontaneous emission. Placing nano crystals into an optical cavity promises the enhancement of spontaneous emission by the Purcell effect. Ideal cavities are Fiber Fabry-Pérot resonators of which one side consists of a mirror coated fiber tip and the other of a plane mirror functioning as the substrate for the nano crystals. It was the aim of this thesis to build a cryostat holder that would bring these two mirrors together with high stability and would allow for vertical and horizontal scanning.

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