Interharmonic Analysis of Sustainable Energy Sources and Loads : Comparing two signal processing methods for estimation of interharmonics
Abstract: In this report, studies on interharmonics from three different measurement sites are performed. The first site is a wind park with three turbines, where the measurements are performed at the point of common coupling of these three. The second site is a network which consists of a PV inverter and two types of EV chargers – a DC charger or an AC charger. Measurements are performed with three different set-ups in this site – only AC charger connected, only DC charger connected, and AC charger and PV inverter connected simultaneously. The third site where measurements were made is a microgrid using frequency control in order to signal how the microgrid should operate at the moment. The interharmonic analysis was conducted using desynchronized processing technique (DP) and Sliding-Window Estimation of Signal Parameters via Rotational Invariance Techniques (SlidingWindow ESPRIT or SWESPRIT). The result from the wind park is that closely and evenly spaced interharmonics can be seen when the current suddenly increases (could be fast variations in wind speed). It is however uncertain if these interharmonics are caused by spectral leakage or not since SWESPRIT estimates the fundamental frequency to vary drastically when wind speed varies. It is observed that the SWESPRIT estimation of fundamental frequency could be caused by sudden changes in phase angle as the current varies. Further investigation and analysis are needed. The result from the measurements on the site with EV chargers and a PV inverter is that eight distinct patterns can be observed. Some patterns appear to come from the upstream grid, while some appear to be caused by either one of the EV chargers or the PV inverter, or interaction between them. Further studies are needed. The result from the microgrid measurements is that two distinct patterns at high frequencies (above 1000 Hz) can be observed during grid connected mode and island mode, respectively. During transitions between grid connection and island mode or vice versa, the fundamental frequency varies drastically, and it is therefore hard to analyse potential interharmonics and draw inferences. Further studies are needed. Advantages and disadvantages, as well as ideas for improvements, of the two applied signal processing methods are discussed throughout the different case-studies.
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