SOLAR ROOF - Roof potential investigation for installing PV system
Abstract: By increasing the amount of CO2 emissions to the atmosphere because of using fossil fuel and the limitation of non-renewable energy sources, solar photovoltaics technology has been growing steadily and is thought to play an important role in the realm of future energies. The objective of this thesis is to investigate the potential of the rooftops for installing PV system on a small scale of 30 multifamily houses in Gothenburg divided into four categories of age, location, roof type, and ventilation system. The results of this study are based on simulations from PV'SOL software. The solar potential in this study were investigated by two designing approaches: first, applying the PV modules on the total available area on the roof and considering the total electricity demand in the building, the second approach was to design a PV system for each building for the best roof area by taking into account all possible shading on the roof and the roof direction. Furthermore, the electricity demand was considered only for the building's common electricity. A deep-in analysis for shading effects was performed in this study to determine the importance of shading on the PV systems output. The investment payback time of each system was investigated for both current and predicted electricity price by performing Life Cycle Cost (LCC) analysis. Additionally, Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) of the PV system was investigated in terms of two aspects: environmental impact and energy payback time. The result of this study indicated that the profitability of the systems is directly depended on the amount of electricity demand in the buildings. The ventilation type of the building for designing a PV system on the rooftop had a significant role in the system output and profitability. The buildings with FTX ventilation system which demanded the highest amount of electricity had the shortest investment payback time. The most significant effect of the building’s location was on shading analysis results. However, the output of the system did not show any difference between the tilted or the flat roofs. By designing the systems based on the second approach the average size of the PV systems decreased by 40 %, while the demand for buying electricity from the grid for both common and household electricity increased only by 10 %. The output of the designed system indicated that designing PV system for household electricity demand was not profitable. The average investment payback time for current and predicted electricity price was calculated as 28 and 22 years, respectively and the average energy payback time was determined as 1.5 years.
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