Real-Time Plastic Deformation of Car Bodyworks
Abstract: Realism in video games is furthered each year. Particularly in racing and drivinggames, visual realism in the deformation of cars play a larger and larger role for theimmersion in a virtual world. With the improvements of modern hardware, a newphysically based simulation approach for the deformation of object has emerged.In this thesis a prototype is developed that aims to implement such a deformationsystem for car bodyworks. One of the many challenges is to generate visuallyappealing deformations, while remaining within the constraints of the real-time context.There is a variety of deformation techniques in the body of research. At theircore, most work similarly. The deformable object is discretized into smaller units,so called particles. These particles are subject to the forces of the virtual environmentand thus adjust the superordinate deformable object. The method of choicefor this thesis’ prototype is position-based deformation, as it has many advantagesfor a real-time context. In position-based deformation, the particles are interconnectvia constraints, which adjust their positions in relation to one-another. Theseconstraints are solved each frame by an iterative Gauss-Seidel solver.It was integrated into a deformation module which is used by the physics engineUnity to compute deformation results. This configuration proved successful as itmakes use of the strengths of both a third-party physics engine and a more performantmodule for time-critical algorithms. The prototype was developed based onan agile software development philosophy and was continuously improved and optimized.The prototype was analyzed regarding the computational performance andthe visual results. Depending on its configuration, the system computes deformationswithin 5-150 ms per frame on an Intel i5-8500 CPU. The results suggest thatthe performance can be enhanced by using a more sophisticated solver method andby utilizing the GPU. The visual results are promising, but suggest that propertiesmust be distributed thought an object in a non-uniform manner. This can generatea more visually interesting result, as it mimics the existence of vehicle parts thatare varying in their structural rigidity.
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