The UNFCCC Technology Transfer Framework for Deployment and Diffusion of Low Carbon Technologies: Is it working in Tanzania?
Abstract: Climate change is a real challenge with global impacts in scope. The negative impacts of climate change are being experienced globally through raising temperatures, rising sea levels, melting ice and glaciers, extended drought and floods, soil erosion among others. The most vulnerable and affected by climate change are the developing countries that lack adaptive capacity to the impacts of climate change. The efforts to mitigate and adapt to the effects of climate change by governments, firms, international organizations and private entities include diffusion and deployment of clean technologies, as well as ecosystems based adaptation and reduction of emissions from deforestation & degradation (REDD). In addressing climate change mitigation and adaptation to the least developed countries, this thesis has two main objectives: to contribute to global mitigation and adaptation efforts of climate change in developing countries by analyzing UNFCCC framework of technology transfer, using Tanzania as a case study. Second objective is to assess whether the framework developed by UNFCCC is sufficient to encourage deployment and diffusion of clean technologies by looking at climate entrepreneurs as the channel of diffusion for technology transfer in Tanzania. The research uses multiple approaches to analyze data: by looking at existing literature on technology transfer and innovation frameworks, by applying the case of India as a pilot comparative study to identify experiences and lessons for case study of Tanzania, and by carrying out interviews to collect data in Tanzania. Early findings of the thesis showed that despite existence of various drivers influencing technology transfer in Tanzania, a lot of efforts need to be deployed to create enabling environment to facilitate transfer of technology. On one hand, the host country needs to increase government commitment in renewable energy sector, set clear policy framework addressing RET, involve the participation of local entrepreneurs and increase incentives for private investment. On the other hand, the thesis revealed that UNFCCC framework needs to adapt the approach to fit host country specific needs, and implement a bottom up approach in order to facilitate local innovation, capacity building and increase resilience within the country’s national and international boundaries.
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