Self-Consumption : Principles and Prospects for PV energy systems in France
Abstract: In 2019, the share of solar energy in the French electricity mix was only 2.2%, far behind nuclear with 70% and hydropower with 11.2%. Nevertheless, the production of solar energy is increasing year after year and has increased by more than 10% between 2018 and 2019. This increase follows energy transition for the green growth Act (Loi relative à la transition énergétique pour la croissance verte), which mentions a target of 40% of renewable electricity production by 2030. In the continuation of this law, the Ministry of Ecological and Solidarity Transition recently published the Multiannual Energy Plan, which sets out the path to be followed and the targets in terms of installed capacity for renewable energies. The figures for photovoltaics speak for themselves: for 2023, the plan sets a doubling of the current installed capacity in France to 20.6 GW. For 2028, the range extends from 35.6 GW to 44.5GW, which would correspond to an installed PV surface area in France of between 330 and 400 km² on the ground and between 150 and 200 km² on the roofs. These figures should be put into perspective with the current installed power which is around 10 GW. These objectives, although very ambitious, are not unreachable. This is therefore one of the reasons for the massive development of solar energy and more specifically photovoltaic energy. Nevertheless, France is in the middle of an energy shift, with the beginning of solar self-consumption, which will surely revolutionize the sector. The purpose of this thesis is then to establish a complete inventory of individual self-consumption of photovoltaic energy in France (such as the three economic sectors, solutions for electricity valuation, administrative procedures, etc.). This thesis will provide a global idea of the self-consumption market in France. Firstly, an overview of solar self-consumption will be defined and explained such as the different actors, self-consumption modes or dedicated indicators. A sizing method for self-consuming installations will then be described, as well as the current methods of obtaining electricity feed-in tariffs. Complementary certificates will also be studied in order to have a precise idea of the regulatory costs not to be neglected. The thesis is complemented with a discussion on the limitations due to current policies and the fact that numerous variable factors may influence the profitability of solar self-consumption systems soon. Finally, a study case will be conducted on photovoltaic carports in France.
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