Simulating Residual Stress in Machining; from Post Process Measurement to Pre-Process Predictions
Metal cutting is a widely used manufacturing technique in the industry and has been the focus of many research and studies in both academic and industrial fields. Prediction of induced residual stresses in a machined component is essential in a component’s fatigue life and surface integrity approximation. Furthermore, it plays a significant role in optimizing cutting process conditions as well as cutting tool geometries. Research has found that using experimental techniques in measuring residual stresses in a machined component is both time consuming and expensive as a method. In the attempt of eliminating the post process measuring drawbacks, the finite element modeling and simulation has proven its efficiency, as a tool, in predicting mechanical and thermal variables, hence, providing a pre-process prediction of variables which may prevent future component failures.
This thesis uses the finite element method to study, model and simulate orthogonal metal cutting using the commercial software DEFORM. Orthogonal cutting simulations of 20NiCrMo5 steel are performed and simulation results are validated against experimental data. The influence of the feed rate, cutting speed and rake angle variations on the induced residual stress are investigated and analyzed. Simulation results offer an insight into cutting parameters and tool geometry influence on the induced residual stresses. Based on the simulation results, cutting speed and rake angle showed a trend when varying the parameters on the induced residual stress; however more investigation is needed in determining a trend for the feed rate influence.
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