The Quantum Hall Effect
Abstract: The quantum Hall effect occurs when a conductor carrying a current is placed in a perpendicular magnetic field. If certain conditions are met, such as strong magnetic field and low temperature, the resistivity becomes quantised, taking values of integer or fractional multiples of h/e2. By analysing the movement of electrons in a magnetic field classically and quantum mechanically information about the integer quantum Hall effect and the fractional quantum Hall effect can be gathered, using the two different gauge potentials of Landau gauge and Symmetric gauge. Resistance Metrology is one field of study that the quantum Hall effect has greatly impacted by providing a way to universally maintain the ohm, with significantly less uncertainty than previously.
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