Design of an X-ray transfer beamline for the Soft X-ray project at MAX IV

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Abstract: At the MAX-IV lab in Lund, there is a current goal to build a new soft X-Ray laser. The beam will be generated from a free-electron laser (FEL), which is an instrument consisting of high-speed electrons. The electrons move through alternating magnetic fields, causing the beam to become monochromatic. After the FEL, the Xrays will enter a beamline consisting of different optical components, such as mirrors, gratings and slits. This project investigated the necessary parameter values of the components, in order for the new X-Ray laser to focus the beam enough. The project consisted of a theoretical part and a simulation part. The use of so-called Kirkpatrick-Baez mirrors enables the beam to be very focused. The best focus achieved was 7.23um'10.87um for ''Pink beamline'' and the intensity at the end was 71.5%, which meant that only 30% of the rays were lost. For the monochromatic beamline, a loss of intensity is inevitable. With a pair of KBmirrors, this beam was focused to be 6.95um'9.80um. The energy spread is ranging from 6.198 eV to 0.3442 eV. The analytical calculations for the spot size matched well with the simulations. The pink beamline which was built in Ray satisfied the criterias of a spot size and intensity loss. The monochromatic beamline did fullfil the criterias of spot size and narrowing the energy spread. A loss of intensity will for this beamline be inevitable. Studying the misalignment effect showed that the components were most sensitive for vertical misalignment. The most sensitive parameters were the curvature of the mirrors.

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