Potential of V2G in a Rural Low-Voltage Grid on Gotland for Voltage and Power Capacity Control

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Abstract: The Swedish transportation sector needs to undergo major changes in order to achieve the established goals for climate and environment. The largest change is the replacement of fossil-fuelled vehicles to vehicles propelled by renewable energy sources, such as biofuels and electricity. To account for an increase in local electric power consumption, the electric power infrastructure of Sweden needs to adapt through expansion and reconstruction of the electric power grid. However, changes in infrastructure are usually expensive. It is therefore suitable to also examine alternative solutions, which could potentially be more cost efficient. One of these solutions are vehicle-to-grid (V2G), where electric vehicles acts as local electric power control and provides auxiliary services to the electric power grid. This thesis is a case study of a part of a low-voltage electric power grid on Gotland, with the goal of analysing the potential of V2G in the investigated area. The study focused on utilizing V2G for balancing electric power consumption and generation, and for adjusting voltage levels. Simulations of the area were executed in PSS®E for three different cases; one high-load case, low-load case and average-load case. It was found that by utilizing V2G a ramp up of electric power during mornings was delayed by approximately one hour, making the electric power grid potentially more compatible with photovoltaics (PV). However, the overall effects from V2G was fairly low. This outcome can partly be explained by the assumptions made in the report, and also due to some odd behaviour of the system model. 

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