High-Speed Hybrid Current mode Sigma-Delta Modulator
The majority of signals, that need to be processed, are analog, which are continuous and can take an infinite number of values at any time instant. Precision of the analog signals are limited due to influence of distortion which leads to the use of digital signals for better performance and cost. Analog to Digital Converter (ADC), converts the continuous time signal to the discrete time signal. Most A/D converters are classified into two categories according to their sampling technique: nyquist rate ADC and oversampled ADC. The nyquist rate ADC operates at the sample frequency equal to twice the base-band frequency, whereas the oversampled ADC operates at the sample frequency greater than the nyquist frequency.
The sigma delta ADC using the oversampling technique provides high resolution, low to medium speed, relaxed anti-aliasing requirements and various options for reconfiguration. On the contrary, resolution of the sigma delta ADC can be traded for high speed operation. Data sampling techniques plays a vital role in the sigma delta modulator and can be classified into discrete time sampling and continuous time sampling. Furthermore, the discrete time sampling technique can be implemented using the switched-capacitor (SC) integrator and the switched-current (SI) integrator circuits. The SC integrator technique provides high accuracy but occupies a larger area. Unlike the SC integrator, the SI integrator offers low input impedance and parasitic capacitance. This makes the SI integrator suitable for low supply voltage and high frequency applications.
From a detailed literature study on the multi-bit sigma delta modulator, it is analyzed that, theneeds a highly linear digital to analogue converter (DAC) in its feedback path. The sigma delta modulators are very sensitive to linearity of the DAC which can degrade the performance without any attenuation. For this purpose T.C. Leslie and B. Singh proposed a Hybrid architecture using the multi-bit quantizer with a single bit DAC. The most significant bit is fed back to the DAC while the least significant bits are omitted. This omission requires a complex digital calibration to complete the analog to digital conversion process which is a small price to pay compared to the linearity requirements of the DAC.
This project work describes the design of High-Speed Hybrid Current modeModulator with a single bit feedback DAC at the speed of 2.56GHz in a state-of-the-art 65 nm CMOS process. It comprises of both the analog and digital processing blocks, using T.C. Leslie and B. Singh architecture with the switched current integrator data sampling technique for low voltage, high speed operation. The whole system is verified mathematically in matlab and implemented using signal flow graphs and verilog a code. The analog blocks like switched current integrator, flash ADC and DAC are implemented in transistor level using a 65 nm CMOS technology and the functionality of each block is verified. Dynamic performance parameters such as SNR, SNDR and SFDR for different levels of abstraction matches the mathematical model performance characteristics.
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