High-Speed Communication Scheme in OSI Layer 2 Research and Implementation

University essay from KTH/Skolan för elektroteknik och datavetenskap (EECS)

Abstract: This thesis is part of a project at Bombardier’s Object Controller System. This system acts as a communication interface for several sub-systems that control the railway traffic. Therefore, part of the safety and availability of railway transportation is dependent on the performance and reliability of this system especially the digital communication system that handles the board-to-board communication. Thus, Bombardier has implemented new high-speed LVDS channels to use instead of the implemented RS-485 channels to improve the board-to-board communication performance in the Object Controller System but they lack a transceiver. This thesis work explores possible transceiver solutions that achieve Bombardier requirements. Reusability is very important for Bombardier for safety compliance and certification. Therefore, the investigation was carried out by looking into what is currently implemented and then was carried on by looking into transceivers that used in highspeed communication and check their suitability and compliance for the FPGA and the requirements. This exploration results in three experiments for different transceiver architecture. The first experiment exploits the currently implemented transceiver architecture and it is not suitable for high-speed data rate due to a limitation in the buffer. The second experiment overcomes the buffer limitation by using a clock domain crossing buffer and results in a 100-time faster system. The third experiment aimed to achieve a higher data rate by using a clock and data recovery transceiver and results in a promising solution but needs some enhancements. For testing, a verification methodology following the one-way stress test architecture has been developed using VHDL for simulation and for in-chip testing and the results were verified using ChipScope logic analyzer from Xilinx. In addition, a thermal test for the solution from the second experiment has been performed.

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