Optimization of the In vitro Pyrogen Test (IPT) Regarding Detection of Pyrogens in Air Samples

University essay from Linköpings universitet/Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi

Abstract: Pyrogens are substances that may induce fever in the human body. They can be parts of bacteria, virus or fungi and due to the reaction they may cause in the body, they are routinely looked for in the medical technology industries. A method called in vitro pyrogen test (IPT) has been developed to detect these pyrogens. It is based on the fever reaction in the human body and only requires blood in combination with a solution believed to contain pyrogens. If the result is positive, the production of cytokines is started. The cytokines of interest in the IPT method are those involved in the fever process and two of them are IL-1β and TNF-α, which are the cytokines used as markers of infection in this study. Since the production of cytokines is in proportion to the amount of pyrogens, the inflammation-inducing potential of the sample can be decided. Due to problems in standardizing the method, mainly because it handles with living blood cells, focus is still pointed at improving it. The aim of this study was to optimize parameters within the IPT method by analysing air samples taken in indoor surroundings believed to contain pyrogens. The different parameters included extraction of the filter from the air sampling, incubation of whole blood and sample extract and analysis of the incubation with ELISA (enzyme linked immunosorbent assay). More specific, some of the issues concerned extraction media, time and shaking intensity for the extraction, blood ratio for the whole blood incubation and cytokines suitable for the method. A possible approach for the IPT method, when analysing air samples containing pyrogens, was reached.

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