A systematic review of biomechanical factors in runners before, during and after Iliotibial Band Syndrome
The aim of this study was to define functional tests, and to describe kinematic and kinetic factors as well as muscular function, and to study any differences in these parameters, found in the literature, between runners before developing, during and after recovering from ITBS compared to healthy controls.
A systematic literature review was performed in Cinahl, EMBASE, PEDro, PubMed and Swemed + with the search terms: "Iliotibial band syndrome", "Iliotibial band friction syndrome" and "Iliotibial tract syndrome". Thirteen articles were accepted for inclusion in this review. They were divided into three groups: "before ITBS", "during ITBS" and "after ITBS". To assess individual quality of the included studies the author of this review formed a protocol with support of the STROBE statement checklist which assists in writing observational studies.
Functional tests: none of the included studies, assessed functional tests in subjects before development of ITBS, during ITBS or after recovering from ITBS.
Kinematic variables: in the literature, several kinematic variables were described in relation to ITBS. Peak eversion at the rear foot was not significantly different between ITBS groups and control groups before, during and after ITBS. Peak knee flexion did not differ between ITBS groups and control groups during and after ITBS. Peak hip adduction was significantly greater in the ITBS group before development of ITBS compared to a control group. During ITBS there were significantly lower peak adduction values both in a fresh state and after a run to exertion, compared to control groups. After recovering from ITBS there were contradictory results concerning the adduction angle at the hip between groups.
Kinetic variables: According to the included studies, peak inversion moment at the rear foot did not differ between the ITBS group and a control group, before developing ITBS. After recovering from ITBS, the subjects had significantly greater inversion moments at the rear foot compared to a control group. Peak abduction moment did not differ between ITBS groups and control groups before and after ITBS.
Muscular function: In the included studies, these factors were only tested in subjects with ITBS. Therefore this question could not be answered in the present study.
Subjects with ITBS are likely to be more abducted at the hip during running, before ITBS onset, compared to healthy controls. This could possibly represent a compensation mechanism.
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