Inclusive development in landlocked states
Abstract: We estimate the effects of the landlocked dummy on inclusive improvements in living standards using the recently developed Inclusive Development Index (IDI). Utilizing cross-country regression models from recent literature, contributions of income, institutional quality, trade and relevant controls are used to examine the effects of the landlocked trap on inclusive development. Our findings indicate that institutions and geographical conditions have statistically significant effects on the IDI score, while we find no such effects from sea port access or trade. We relate these findings to recent literature and its relevance to poverty reduction in LLDCs.
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