River resources towards Sustainable Development of Tanzania. : A contribution of Hydropower tothe energy security in Tanzania: Case study, Rufiji River basin

University essay from Uppsala universitet/Institutionen för geovetenskaper

Abstract:

This paper sets out: How river resources can be used towards a sustainable development of Tanzania, the case ofthe Rufiji River Basin. The study focuses on the role of hydropower at present and in the future, in the context ofeconomic growth and sustainability and meeting the energy demand in Tanzania.Take into consideration that hydropower is still the major source of electricity that Tanzania relies on. Tanzaniahas been struggling with one of the lowest electricity rates in sub-Saharan Africa where on average less than 15percent of the Tanzanian population has access to electricity.Tanzania faces a major challenge to provide more than 85 percent of the remaining population with electricity,which will require big investment and expertise. Electricity and energy in general seem to take fore debate andnews spots in the country because it reaches a point where even those accessing electricity still suffer withsevere energy rationing. In this project, different development implications regarding hydropower production inthe country were addressed through in depth literature review from different academic sources, and a surveywhich was conducted through questionnaires, a field trip and interviews to identify not only people’s opinionsand feelings concerning the situation, but also to find out if they propose any optimal sustainable solution forremedying the problem, which hinders the socio-economic development of the country. The analysis shows thatTanzania can produce enough hydropower to meet the energy demand if hydropower was improved as one of thesources of energy. The clear picture shows that the potential of the Rufiji River basin is not fully exploited due tothe lack of an integrated approach on achieving the best solutions for Tanzanian energy, inappropriatetechnology and poor allocation of funds.Moreover the indication illustrates that hydropower has an important role to play in the future if the potentialtapped in an area was endowed with considerable benefits to an integrated electric system. For that case, thepaper attributes that hydropower production can contribute to the energy security in Tanzania. On the other handthe paper argues that other renewable options such as solar and wind power in a country like Tanzania shouldn’tbe separated but rather go hand in hand in research and consideration. The theory derived in this project statesthat ‘‘River Basins remain a largely untapped resource for poverty alleviation in Tanzania’’.

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