Analysis of odourant compounds in wine : - With headspace solid-phase microextraction and gas chromatography- mass spectrometry
Abstract: Wine is a drink that can enhance the flavour experience of food, which is why it is important that the wine’s sensory profile is explained correctly to the consumers. In this study, headspace solid-phase microextraction gas chromatography mass spectrometry was used to characterise odourant compounds in wine to find chemical markers to explain wine sensory profiles instead of sensory analysis. The study included 16 different wines, red, white, orange and sparkling, where the nine most abundant peaks in each wine sample were evaluated. Homologue patterns based on areas were used to compare profiles between different wines. When studying homologue patterns for each wine and comparing within wine groups, differences and similarities can be seen. All wine samples contained isoamyl alcohol and the majority of them also contained ethyl decanoate, octanoic acid and decanoic acid. Six out of eight red wines contained ethyl succinate and five of them also contained ethyl hexanoate. All white wine samples showed presence of ethyl octanoate and ethyl hexanoate. The orange wines also contained ethyl octanoate and ethyl hexanoate, along with pentanoic acid. Both sparkling wines contained ethyl octanoate and ethyl hexanoate in addition with phenylethyl alcohol. However, a more thorough study covering more compounds to identify the less obvious differences of wine would have to be performed for a more precise explanation of the wine’s characterisation and sensory profile. It should be noted that the method of this study does leave room for improvements to improve the quality of the results. For example, since the most abundant compounds are not necessarily the ones with the most powerful odours, quantification based on response of an internal standard would strengthen the study. Additional compounds in the samples could also be further investigated. Statistically the method would also need improvement for satisfactory results regarding reproducibility of the samples.
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