Energy storage solutions for electric bus fast charging stations : Cost optimization of grid connection and grid reinforcements
Abstract: This study investigates the economic benefits of installing a lithium-ion battery storage (lithium iron phosphate, LFP and lithium titanate, LTO) at an electric bus fast charging station. It is conducted on a potential electric bus system in the Swedish city Västerås, and based on the existing bus schedules and routes as well as the local distribution system. The size of the energy storage as well as the maximum power outtake from the grid is optimized in order to minimize the total annual cost of the connection. The assessment of the distribution system shows that implementing an electric bus system based on opportunity charging in Västerås does not cause over-capacity in the 10 kV grid during normal feeding mode. However, grid reinforcements might become necessary to guarantee potential backup feeding modes. Batteries are not a cost effective option to decrease grid owner investments in new transformers. However, battery energy storage have the possibility to decrease the annual cost of connecting a fast charging station to the low-voltage grid. The main advantage of the storage system is to decrease the fees to the grid owner. Of the studied batteries, LTO is the most cost effective solution because of its larger possible depth-of-discharge for a given cycle life. The most important characteristics, that determine if a fast charging station could benefit economically from an energy storage, is the bus frequency. The longer the time in between buses and the higher the power demand, the more advantageous is the energy storage.
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