Evaluation of Active Rear Steering through Multi-Body Simulation

University essay from KTH/Väg- och spårfordon samt konceptuell fordonsdesign

Abstract: The goal of this thesis work is to evaluate and quantify the advantages and disadvantages of Active Rear Steering (ARS). The evaluation is carried out through Multi-Body System (MBS) simulations. An analytical model has been developed to better understand the basic dynamics of vehicles equipped with rear steering. In parallel, a high fidelity MBS model is developed in Simpack. This model includes suspension kinematics and compliance, allowing for detailed analyses of steering hardware performance. Next, different control strategies aiming at improving manoeuvrability, stability and agility are implemented in Simulink. In order to assess their effectiveness, the high fidelity model is utilised by running co-simulation with Simulink. Manoeuvrability is assessed through constant steer, constant radius and ramp steer manoeuvres. Stability is assessed through transient manoeuvres such as step steer and sine with dwell. Agility is assessed through step steer and frequency response. Ultimately, also a subjective assessment is carried out by means of Volvo Cars' dynamic driving simulator. The conclusion from the assessment is that the drivers feel the all wheel steered vehicle more stable during evasive manoeuvres. It is concluded that for manoeuvrability the minimum turning radius is reduced by 19 % at low velocity; this implies that the steering angle request is reduced at low velocity, while it is increased at high velocity. A slightly higher steering angle request at high velocity might be beneficial since the driver would be able to control the vehicle in a wider range of steering wheel angles. For agility the results are contradicting: on the one hand, according to the step steer rise time difference between lateral acceleration and yaw rate, the controlled vehicles are performing worse than the passive vehicle; on the other hand, according to the frequency response analysis, both the delays between steering input and yaw rate and between lateral acceleration and yaw rate are reduced up to respectively 75 % and 46 % for the considered frequency range. Finally, for stability, the yaw rate overshoot from a step steer can be reduced up to 65 % at high velocity and the sideslip angle can always be reduced. The vehicle equipped with ARS outperforms the passive vehicle in the sine with dwell manoeuvre.

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