Measurement of Thermal Insulation properties of TBC inside the Combustion chamber
Abstract: This master thesis project was performed in collaboration with Scania CV AB, Engine Materials group. The purpose with the project was to investigate different ceramic TBC (Thermal Barrier Coating) thermal insulation properties inside the combustion chamber. Experimental testing was performed with a Single-Cylinder engine with TBC deposited on selected components. A dummy-valve was developed and manufactured specifically for this test in order to enable a water cooling system and to ease the testing procedure. The dummy-valve consists of a headlock, socket, valve poppet and valve shaft. Additionally, a copper ring is mounted between the cylinder head and the valve poppet to seal the system from combustion gases. Thermocouples attached to the modified valve poppet and valve shaft measured the temperature during engine test to calculate the heat flux. The TBCs consisted of three different materials: 7-8% yttrium-stabilized zirconia (8YSZ), gadolinium zirconia and lanthanum zirconia. The 8YSZ TBC was tested as standard, but also with microstructural modifications. Modifications such as pre-induced segmented cracks, nanostructured zones and sealed porosity were used. The results indicated that the heat flux of 8YSZ-standard, 8YSZ-nano and 8YSZ-segmented cracks was in level with the steel reference. In the case of 8YSZ-sealed porosity the heat flux was measured higher than the steel reference. Since 8YSZ-standard and 8YSZ-sealed porosity are deposited with the same powder it is believed that the high heat flux is caused by radiative heat transfer. The remaining samples have had some microstructural changes during engine testing. 8YSZ-nano had undergone sintering and its nanostructured zones became fewer and almost gone after engine testing leading to less heat barrier in the top coat of the TBC. However, for 8YSZ-segmented cracks and gadolinium zirconia lower heat flux was measured due to the appearance of horizontal cracks. These cracks are believed to act as internal barriers as they are orientated perpendicular to the heat flow. During long-time (5 hour) engine tests the 8YSZ-standard exhibited the same phenomena: a decrease in heat flux due to propagation of horizontal cracks. One-dimensional heat flux was not achieved and the main reason for that was caused by heating and cooling of the shafts outer surface. However, the dummy-valve system has proven to be a quick, easy and stable to perform tests with a Single-Cylinder engine. Both water-cooling and long-time engine tests were conducted with minor issues. The dummy-valve has been further developed for future tests. Changes to the valve shaft are the most remarkable: smaller diameter to reduce heat transfer and smaller pockets to ensure better thermocouple positioning. Another issue was gas leakage from the combustion chamber through the copper ring and valve poppet joint. The copper ring will be designed with a 1 mm thick track to improve sealing, hence better attachment to the valve poppet.
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