Smart City Lighting in the City of Stockholm

University essay from KTH/Nätverk och systemteknik

Abstract: The vision of the Smart City and Internet of Things is gradually becoming areality. Many cities around the world have initiated a modernization processtowards more intelligent and ecient management systems and Stockholm isnot an exception. This work is chiey devoted to public lighting; owing toits ubiquitous nature, it may certainly play a major role driving this transformation.It addresses the main concerns of the Trac Oce, in charge of thisinstallation, in relation with the architecture, underlying protocols, opportunities,and available systems in the market, among others.The lack of a unied standard as well as legal, human and security issueshave initially hampered the maturing process of this new paradigm. The existenceof multiple alternatives leads to the overchoice phenomenon and oftendiscourages industries and governments to adopt IoT solutions. Therefore, anextensive survey has been conducted to analyze the suitability of dierent protocolswith the requirements of the installation. Solutions have been classiedin three main categories, and one instance of each, namely IEEE 802.15.4,NB-IoT and LoRa, have been evaluated to illustrate an example architectureand calculate capacity and cost metrics.The demands of such deployment have been identied by agreeing on a basicset of services. As a result, two scenarios (worst-case and optimistic) havebeen proposed to model system's trac. A mathematical methodology hasbeen used to establish a soft limit on the maximum amount of devices servedby a single gateway that should be considered by implementers. In case of NBIoT,the capacity depends entirely upon the network operator, consequentlythe comparative is based on a third model (minimum trac) focused on reducingthe operation cost. In this way, this thesis provides the Trac Ocewith an initial approach to the matter and an unbiased reference frameworkto decide the future development of street lighting in Stockholm.

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