The case of Sao Paulo - A study of poverty and social exclusion in the urbanization process
Abstract: The purpose of this paper was to see how poverty and social exclusion has been defined, measured and understood together with the urbanization process in a mega-city like Sao Paulo and also to look upon and analyze the connection and importance of policy correlated with these notions in the last decades, especially from 1990s until present. The questions that have been answered in order to fulfil the purpose were: - How does the urbanization process affect urban poverty and social exclusion in Sao Paulo? - How are poverty and social exclusion understood and measured both international and in the case of Sao Paulo? - Is Brazil and Sao Paulo showing an improvement in social indicators according to the developing process - How are poverty and social exclusion connected with the policy in Sao Paulo? This paper has been a non-experimental case study, based on literature and statistics. By looking at the international understanding of the notions poverty and social exclusion it has been possible to correlate these notions to the case of Sao Paulo. The result of this paper verified the hypothesis presented, that poverty and social exclusion are complex and multidimensional notions that need to be understood from a comprehensive viewpoint in an urbanization process, considering the social and political constructions in the society and also the political actions taken. This paper showed that this hypothesis was suitable for the case of Sao Paulo.
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