Abstinence at the Expense of Condoms? An Analysis of NGOs? Opportunities to Work with HIV Prevention in Uganda
Abstract: Uganda is a unique case because the HIV infection rate was significantly reduced in the 1990s and explanations for the success vary. In 2004 the U.S. doubled its aid to HIV/AIDS programs in Uganda. At the same time the Ugandan government started advocating abstinence and faithfulness at the expense of condoms. This thesis analyses how the Ugandan government's changed attitudes towards HIV prevention have affected the opportunities for faith- and non-faith-based organisations to work with HIV prevention. The theory of political opportunity structures is used, as well as theories on donor impact. The conclusion is that the opportunities have changed in favour of faith-based organisations, which are supported by the Ugandan government as well as the U.S. In opposite, the opportunities for non-faith-based organisations to gain funding and decide their preferred HIV prevention strategies are constrained. The applicability of the theory of political opportunity structures is discussed for the Ugandan context specifically, and for NGOs generally. The conclusion is that there are useful elements within the theory for this case and for future research on NGOs.
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