Exposure assessment of Benzo[a]pyrene for Ho Chi Minh City residents - a CalTOX modeling approach
The potential risk for cancer cause due to exposure of Benzo[a]pyrene (BaP) (Fig.1) is a national concerning due to the increasing emission of BaP in urban areas. It is difficult and time consuming to determine BaP in all environmental compartments to assess potential human exposure. A multimedia transport and multi pathway model (CalTOX) was used to determine the concentration of BaP in all environmental compartments as well as evaluating the differences in exposure between children and adults in Ho Chi Minh City (HCMC). A range of values was used for each model input which resulted in the possible range of media concentrations and risk to BaP. A sensitivity analysis determines which influence each input parameter has on the outcome variance. The model was validated by comparison of predicted concentrations with measured concentrations in air. Uncertainty and variability analysis were also performed together to investigate their contribution to the outcome. The predicted exposure risk for a child was 2.20 times higher than for an adult. This indicates that children are important groups when calculating the exposure and risk to BaP.
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