Long term aging and creep exposure for advanced heat resistant alloys : A phase analysis

University essay from Uppsala universitet/Institutionen för materialvetenskap; Uppsala universitet/Institutionen för materialvetenskap; Uppsala universitet/Institutionen för materialvetenskap; Uppsala universitet/Institutionen för kemi - Ångström; Uppsala universitet/Instituti

Abstract: This project was ordered by Sandvik Materials Technology and was performed by a group of students at Uppsala university. The purpose of the project was to study precipitation behavior and structure stability in six advanced heat resistant alloys. Each sample were subjected to a creep rupture test in 600 or 700°C depending on the alloy type. Two parts of each alloy where examined; one part which had been affected by creep and another part which was unaffected by creep. A literature study was performed first to gain knowledge of the scientific theory utilized in this project, namely creep, precipitation hardening, and about the different materials which were analyzed. Preliminary results for the phase composition of the materials were obtained from a Thermo-Calc (TC) simulation. The SEM-images showed nothing noteworthy for any sample due to the roughness of the sample surfaces. The EDS-analysis showed chromium depletion in the centers of the aged samples of HT9 and Sanicro® 75X. Other minority phases such as Cr23C6 in Sanicro®70, P-phase and a titanium nitride phase in sanicro® 60X, VB in Esshete 1250 and Sigma-phase in 4C54 were identified using EDSmapping. It was found that when using XRD to analyze the phase compositions of small samples it is impractical to have the samples cast in bakelite beforehand. The XRD-results obtained in this project showed that more than 90% of the XRD diffractogram for every sample was graphite, which made the identification of minority phases impossible. The quality of the LOM-images varied greatly between samples, for 4C54 grain sizes were measured in all images, for Esshete 1250 grain sizes were measured for the crept sample, and for Sanicro® 60X measurements could only be taken from one image. Most of the sample preparation was insufficient to achieve the test results necessary for complete microstructural analysis and phase analysis of the samples. The mistakes in the practical steps of the project were noted and improvements for these mistakes are presented in the conclusion.

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