Binder-free oxide nanotube electrodes for high energy and power density 3D Li-ion microbatteries
This thesis covers synthesis and characterisation of TiO2 nanotubes and TiO2 / Li4Ti5O12 composite nanotubes. The aim was to build batteries with high areal capacity and good rate capability. TiO2 nanotubes were synthesized by two step anodization of titanium metal foil and the composite electrodes were synthesized through electrochemical lithiation of TiO2 nanotubes. To improve the battery performance the TiO2 nanotubes were annealed at 350 °C in air atmosphere, while the composite electrodes were annealed in argon at 550 °C. The longest TiO2 nanotubes were measured to 42.5 μm. The 40 μm long nanotubes displayed an areal capacity of 1.0 mAh/cm2 and a gravimetric capacity of 89 mAh/g. Nanotubes having a length of 10 μm had an areal capacity of 0.33 mAh/cm2 and a gravimetriccapacity of 130 mAh/g. When cycled at high rates, 10C, the capacity of the 40 μm nanotubes was 0.25 mAh/cm2, using a current density of 9.3 mA. The capacity of the 40 μm long nanotubes were higher than for the 10 μm long, but the increase was not proportional to the increase in length. A composite electrode was successfully synthesized and was found to have a capacity of 0.25 mAh/cm2 at a rate of C/5.
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