Hong Kong Under the One Country, Two Systems Policy ——Through the Case study of Anti-Extradition Law Amendment Bill Movement to exploring the identity and ontological security issues of Hong Kongese
Abstract: Traditional security studies focuses primarily on physical threats to the state. By contrast, the ontological security framework argues that individuals feel secure when they are able to maintain a communal narrative. Such a framework lends itself to an analysis of the impact of identity continuity on security. This thesis uses the ontological framework to understand the security issues that arise under the "one country, two systems" policy. In particular, this thesis takes the Anti-Extradition Law Amendment Bill Movement as the key point of investigation and applies critical discourse analysis as a method to examine discussions on Facebook about the “Civil Human Rights Front” (CHRF) as the main initiator of the demonstrations. Meanwhile It also examined the construction and presentation of local identity through the analysis of media publications during the movement by the “pro-democracy” newspaper Apple Daily. Meanwhile, during the qualitative analysis process, this thesis follows an abductive logic. Though the analysis, the thesis found that during the 150 years of Hong Kong’s history as a colonial territory, its residents have developed a unique local narrative. This sets them apart from mainland China, with its dominant nationalist narrative. While recent demonstrations by the Hong Kongese have been portrayed as "endangering national security," they are also indicative of its unique narrative within this history of colonization，meanwhile the narrative difference is enlarged and manifested by the construction of public media discourse. Divergence in communal narratives leads the Hong Kongese toward a different process of “subjective securitsation" than the mainland Chinese, whose narratives do not revolve around the same reference points. But within the perspective of China as a whole, the "one country, two systems" policy is changing the narrative and discourse structure of Hong Kong’s inhabitants. With the passage of time and increased interaction between the two sides, a new narrative structure will be established, and a new sense of ontological security will take root.
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