Statistical Background Models with Shadow Detection for Video Based Tracking
Abstract: A common problem when using background models to segment moving objects from video sequences is that objects cast shadow usually significantly differ from the background and therefore get detected as foreground. This causes several problems when extracting and labeling objects, such as object shape distortion and several objects merging together. The purpose of this thesis is to explore various possibilities to handle this problem. Three methods for statistical background modeling are reviewed. All methods work on a per pixel basis, the first is based on approximating the median, the next on using Gaussian mixture models, and the last one is based on channel representation. It is concluded that all methods detect cast shadows as foreground. A study of existing methods to handle cast shadows has been carried out in order to gain knowledge on the subject and get ideas. A common approach is to transform the RGB-color representation into a representation that separates color into intensity and chromatic components in order to determine whether or not newly sampled pixel-values are related to the background. The color spaces HSV, IHSL, CIELAB, YCbCr, and a color model proposed in the literature (Horprasert et al.) are discussed and compared for the purpose of shadow detection. It is concluded that Horprasert's color model is the most suitable for this purpose. The thesis ends with a proposal of a method to combine background modeling using Gaussian mixture models with shadow detection using Horprasert's color model. It is concluded that, while not perfect, such a combination can be very helpful in segmenting objects and detecting their cast shadow.
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