Study of up-regulated genes in gene clusters during formation of mature hepatocytes from human induced pluripotent stem cells to identify transcription factors and mirnas

University essay from Högskolan i Skövde/Institutionen för biovetenskap

Author: Suraj Thomas Alexander; [2021]

Keywords: ;

Abstract: The multifunctional purpose of hepatocytes, the functional liver cells within the metabolic, endocrine and secretory functions highlights key importance in emphasizing the research and treatment methods that utilize these cells. Forming 80% of the liver's cells, hepatocytes are involved in many of the primary functions of the liver including the delivery of immune response against pathogens and aiding in the detoxification of drugs. As a result, it provides a valuable basis for medical research. Through the findings of Ghosheh et al. (2017), a method of generating mature hepatocytes was achieved through the human pluripotent stem cells (HPSC), but the generation of hepatocytes in which all the genes are expressed at the right amount through this method proves to be a difficult endeavor. The primary goal of this project is to utilize the established findings to enhance and improve the efficacy of the process that goes behind the generation of mature hepatocytes. The approach towards the current project was initiated with culturing and differentiating three human embryonic stem cell lines and three human-induced pluripotent stem cell lines into mature hepatocytes. In the study mentioned, k-means clustering along with Pearson correlation as the distant measure was run in R to subdivide the top 2000 genes with the highest differential expression into 10 clusters. The cluster data from this paper was used to do the current study, in which the up-regulated and down-regulated gene were first identified for clusters 2, 4 & 6 and 9. The interactions of up-regulated genes in these clusters were further analyzed using Enrichr to identify the different miRNAs for various genes from the clusters. Within cluster 2, a total of 8 genes showed the possibility of being regulated using 4 miRNAs. Transcription factors were also identified for cluster 2 and a combination of HNF1A, EP300, AHR, NFKB1 and HIF1A could repress 8 genes that were not repressed by miRNAs. In cluster 4 & 6, most of the up-regulated genes showcased tumorigenicity and all 20 genes identified could be regulated with the combination of 7 miRNAs. In cluster 9, a combination of 11 miRNAscould be used to regulate 26 out of 27 genes that were analyzed. Ensuring that stem cell products do not turn cancerous is a priority in the medical field. Conducting the analyses of the other clusters aside from 2, 4 & 6 and 9 will prove highly beneficial in reducing the risks pertaining to stem cell mutation due to overexpression of genes.

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