Pollution in River Ganga-Problems and Prospects in Varanasi, India.

University essay from KTH/Mark- och vattenteknik

Abstract: Major rivers in developing countries around the world are heavily loaded with pollutants. According to the UN Water Statistics around 2 million tons of waste is dumped into rivers daily. In the developing countries 70 % of the industrial waste is diverted into the water courses without treating daily. In particular in Asia where more than half of the world population is living, World Wide Fund for Nature (WWF) estimates that five major rivers in Asia aid over 870 million people are the most endanger in the world. In India over the past 50 years the population and economic growth leads to increasing pressure on the water recources. It is expected that the population of India would be 1.4 billion by 2024. Till today wide range of research is being undertaken on the pollution problem of Ganga River. Many scientists and NGOs are trying to study the condition of Ganga water by measuring metals, chemical pollutants, coli form bacteria…etc. Government of India has officially launched Ganga Action Plan (GAP-1) during April 1985 and GAP-2 in February 1991to reduce the pollution of Ganga River. Even though lot of research is going on to decrease the pollution load, no significant change has occurred. The main aim of this project is to identify gaps in current efforts and to suggest measures to sustainably resolve the problem. There are six highly polluted cities on the bank of the river with different type of pollution loads they are Rishikesh, Kanpur, Allahabad, Varanasi, Patna and Calcutta. Out of the all the cities Varanasi has a distinctive pollution fill to the river over the belt of the river that you can find a lot of dead bodies flowing on the river. On March 4th 2010, the Government of India approved to implement "Mission Clean Ganga" project to control the pollution sources on Ganga River in Uttar Pradesh, Bihar, Uttarkhand and West Bengal. Government has approved highest budget to Varanasi, 490.90 Crore Indian Rupees which clearly emphasizes how severally the water is polluted in Varanasi. This situation inspires me to concentrate on Varanasi in my project. During this project I visited Varanasi to study the current situation in collaboration with Sankat Mochan Foundation, a NGO organization whose aim is "Not A Drop Of Sewage In Ganga In The Religious Bathing Area Around It".

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