Security Analysis of Smart Buildings

University essay from KTH/Skolan för elektroteknik och datavetenskap (EECS)

Abstract: In recent years, buildings have been starting to become more automated to match the demand forenergy efficient and sustainable housing. Subsystems, or so-called Building Management Systems(BMS), such as heating, electricity or access control, are gradually becoming more automated. Thenext step is to integrate all BMS in a building within one system, which is then called a smartbuilding. However, while buildings are becoming more and more automated, the concerns ofcybersecurity grow larger. While integrating a wide range of Internet of Things (IoT) devices withthe system, the attack surfaces is larger, and this, together with the automation of criticalsubsystems in the building leads to that attacks in worse case can harm the occupants of thebuilding.In this paper, the threats and risks are analyzed by using a security threat model. The goal isto identify and analyze potential threats and risks to smart buildings, with the purpose to giveinsight in how to develop secure systems for them. The process of the model includes five phases ofwhich this study focuses on phase one and three, identifying losses after a successful attack, anddetermine goals and intentions of the attackers for specific attacks, respectively.As a result of the security analysis potential threats were defined, in which the ones withhighest threat event frequency included data leaks and disabling the heating system. Somevulnerabilities and recommendations to improv the system is also discussed, which is of importanceso that occupants can continue to live and work in sustainable, reliable and secure facilities.

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