Implications of different sensor resolutions and contrast settings in a roll-to-roll process, considering the speed of the process vs identifying defects, for manufacturing green batteries : A study on the effect of light conditions on thedetection of def

University essay from KTH/Mekatronik

Abstract: This Master’s thesis work is about the conditions that can affect the identification of defects in lithium-ion batteries. In lithium batteries, there are cathode and anode, which are separated with electrically insulative but ionically conductive electrolytes and separators. The cathode consists of aluminum foil, and the anode consists of copper foil. During the production of the batteries, these foils are being coated with active materials. Unfortunately, some defects such as scratches, misshape, marks, or spots can occur during the coating, and these defects harm the batteries’ performance. To ensure a good performance of the batteries, these defects have to be detected and identified. Today, these defects can be detected with a camera that scans the foils. To detect all the defects, even smaller marks, and dots, a new high-resolution sensor was investigated. The new sensor called Contact Image Sensor that acquires the raw information of the light and converts it into electrical signals was used. In other words, all the objects reflect the light, and the Contact Image Sensor captures the reflected light from the objects. By investigating the light, illumination time, and the contrast of the objects, it is possible to make the defects more visible. Furthermore, this thesis covers the speed of the coated foils passing the sensor. Since the production of the batteries should be time and cost-efficient, the speed can be high, but the sensor should have enough time to scan clear images. In this Master’s thesis work the implications of different sensor resolutions and contrast settings in a roll-to-roll process were studied, considering the speed of the process vs identifying defects (such as scratches and misshapes). It has also been studied if the light conditions, under normal circumstances, have a substantial impact on this trade-off. The result has been promising. Since the sensor has an internal resolution, a limited scanning area, and a scanning frequency, the speed will be limited by a maximum illumination time. But as long as the illumination time is under the maximum, the speed, in this case, does not matter. The maximum illumination time is different for different speeds. Furthermore, the results clearly show that high resolution, maximum allowed illumination time for each speed, and lower speeds, provide the best conditions for finding and identifying defects. However, there comes a price for the illuminated foil. The price is that the bright light can lead to overexposed foil, i.e., the part of the foil without coating will be exposed to too much light. This can create problems if damage to the foil is to be identified. Therefore, a more nuanced light that balances the contrast of the coating part and the foil is recommended.

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