Impact of electric vehicle charging on thedistribution grid in Uppsala 2030

University essay from KTH/Energiteknik; KTH/Energiteknik

Abstract: Planning of distribution grids is based on statistically estimating the maximum load that will occur given a certain range of criteria (location, household types, district / electric heating etc.) Charging of electric vehicles is not one of these criteria. However, given the expected `boom' in sales of Chargeable Electric Vehicles (CEVs), and the lengthy planning process of distribution grids (>10 years) the knowledge gap is becoming a more pressing issue. This research has been conducted to investigate if Vattenfall, a Swedish electric utility company with distribution assets in both Sweden and Germany, needs to take action to react to the expected increase in CEVs in the near term. The study has been conducted with Uppsala Municipality as a showcase and 2030 as the time frame. The findings of this study show that Vattenfall should incorporate CEV usage into distribution planning to avoid overload of power stations in Uppsala by 2030. The ndings shows that 1) we can expect a 'boom' in sales of CEVs in the near future and that 73% of cars in trac in Uppsala may be CEVs by 2030 and 2) that CEV charging is expected to have a signi- cant impact on the distribution grid, with certain power stations in Uppsala seeing a peak load increase of up to 30%. The recommended actions are the following: • Monitor specific areas with a high concentration of cars and low energy consumption per household that already have substations with capacity below the recommended dimensions • Monitor CEV sales to reevaluate current projections on CEV development in Uppsala • Monitor trends of car ownership and evaluate whether this will aect CEV charging behaviour • Reconstruct Velander constants, used for grid planning, to take the CEV load into consideration • Investigate smart charging solutions, to shift the CEV load peak to a different time of the day

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