Flux Measurements at Lake Erken

University essay from Uppsala universitet/Luft-, vatten- och landskapslära

Abstract: Turbulent fluxes govern the exchange of momentum, heat and moisture between the Earth’s surface and the overlying air. Computations of these fluxes are crucial, particularly over lakes and seas because most of the earth’s surface consists of water. One of the most common methods of calculating turbu- lent fluxes is the bulk method, where the fluxes are expressed with exchange coefficients. With more knowledge of these coefficients, the fluxes can be determined with a higher accuracy. Consequently, the turbulence structure and the exchange of moisture, momentum and heat between the surface and the overlying air can be better understood. The goal of this study was to compute the neutral exchange co- efficients for drag (CDN), heat (CHN) and moisture (CEN) and investigate their dependency on various atmospheric conditions, based on four years of measurements from Lake Erken, located about 70 km east of Uppsala. The coefficients were evaluated against the wind speed, stratification and time over water TOW (the time that the air is above the water before it reaches the tower). A special analysis was done by studying the variation of the coefficients with the wind speed during the UVCN-regime. Another analysis was done to see if the coefficients may have been influenced by non-local processes, e.g. advection from the surroundings. Additionally, normalized standard deviations for the temperature and humidity were evaluated for different stabilities. The results were compared with estimations by the COARE3.0 algorithm (for the dependency on the wind speed and the stability) in a previous report and other earlier studies.  The results indicated that the neutral exchange coefficients were higher and more dispersed during near neutral stratification and low TOWs. The normalized standard deviations also increased during neutral conditions. The explanation for this could be related to the presence of the UVCN-regime or non-local effects such as advection or entrainment from the surroundings. The wind speed had no ob- vious impact on the coefficients. However, the drag coefficient was larger and more spread out in the wind speed range 1-3 m/s. In comparison to earlier studies, the exchange coefficients were higher and scattered to a greater extent. This may be because of a strong UVCN-regime, sustainable non-local influences, relatively steeper waves than open-sea conditions or outliers in the data. 

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