Exitability measurements through indoor 3D GIS
Abstract: Population growth, city expansion and the limitation of space is shifting construction into a vertical direction. Residential or public constructions as well as office buildings are growing vertically, especially in big cities. Along with the verticality, evacuation problems popped up. The higher buildings are rising the longer it takes to get people safely to the nearest exit. The primary concern for emergency response and rescue is the time needed to evacuate. Evacuation processes are highly contingent to building structure as built and not necessarily as designed. Throughout construction minor modifications are made and in evacuation planning it is eminent that the most accurate and up to date information is used.In this dissertation the focus is laid on the evacuation capability of the Munin building of the Hogkolan I Gävle. This research uses network analysis and network routing in an indoor three dimensional (3D) geographic information system. Exitability is defined as the ease to get to the nearest exit. This is a crucial factor in evacuation modelling and planning. In order to calculate the exitability a three dimensional model of the building is created along with a network dataset. The building model is analyzed based on three different scenarios, for different paces on the five different floor levels resulting into a matrix of evacuation paths. The easiest way out from each room in the building to the nearest exit is calculated and listed. By representing the exitability, the evacuation plan of the building can be revised and if needed adjusted. The created model can be used as a tool in decision making considering the time needed to get to the nearest exit.The importance of the implementation of network routing in GIS to improve evacuation plans can be found in development phase as well as whilst emergencies. During emergencies the shortest path for search and rescue can be found considering blocked paths. Throughout development the placement of exits and the amount of exits can be tested using the system. By simulating emergencies, bottlenecks and hazardous situations can be reconciled and doing so improve the evacuation plans. The influence of different scenarios on the exitability can be reduced to influence the scenarios have on the covered distance to the nearest exit. The different scenarios show a translation of linearity. The different scenarios give an insight in the congestion of the exits, which can be used for emergency planning. Future-minded it is preferable this theoretical model is compared to real-time results.
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