Hydrogen technology in the Swedish automobile sector - a Multi-Level Perspective approach
Abstract: In this essay, we study possible pathways for the introduction of hydrogen technology inthe Swedish automobile sector. It is an environmentally much preferable alternative to thecurrent, fossil-fuel based, system which emits large amounts of greenhouse gases. However,the transport sector is hard to affect since the current technologies enjoy benefits from severaldifferent positive feedback loops. A vicious circle is created since new technologies, like our,must benefit from the feedback loops to reach competitiveness but they will not start gainingfrom them as they are not competitive yet.By applying the multi-level perspective introduced by Rip and Kemp (1998), we identifiedimportant steps in trying to realise a transition away from the fossil fuel-based transportsystem. The framework was applied on hydrogen technology for the automobile sector and asfurther input a number of interviews were conducted.Our studies helped us identify a number of results such as the need for technology specificpolicies and long-sightedness in Swedish energy politics. These actions are needed since hy-drogen technology is today too far from competitiveness to be seriously helped by economywide policies. Furthermore, to gain new business in this area the companies should cooperatewith each other to a larger extent than in their normal business, something called "runningin packs". The rationale for the companies to cooperate is that it is better to have a limitedshare in a large successful market than being monopolist on one that never takes off.
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