Three dimensional object recognition for robot conveyor picking
Abstract: Shape-based matching (SBM) is a method for matching objects in greyscale images. It extracts edges from search images and matches them to a model using a similarity measure. In this thesis we extend SBM to find the tilt and height position of the object in addition to the z-plane rotation and x-y-position. The search is conducted using a scale pyramid to improve the search speed. A 3D matching can be done for small tilt angles by using SBM on height data and extending it with additional steps to calculate the tilt of the object. The full pose is useful for picking objects with an industrial robot. The tilt of the object is calculated using a RANSAC plane estimator. After the 2D search the differences in height between all corresponding points of the model and the live image are calculated. By estimating a plane to this difference the tilt of the object can be calculated. Using the tilt the model edges are tilted in order to improve the matching at the next scale level. The problems that arise with occlusion and missing data have been studied. Missing data and erroneous data have been thresholded manually after conducting tests where automatic filling of missing data did not noticeably improve the matching. The automatic filling could introduce new false edges and remove true ones, thus lowering the score. Experiments have been conducted where objects have been placed at increasing tilt angles. The results show that the matching algorithm is object dependent and correct matches are almost always found for tilt angles less than 10 degrees. This is very similar to the original 2D SBM because the model edges does not change much for such small angels. For tilt angles up to about 25 degrees most objects can be matched and for nice objects correct matches can be done at large tilt angles of up to 40 degrees.
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