University essay from Lunds universitet/Centrum för öst- och sydöstasienstudier

Abstract: This thesis attempts to explain why the military is still a powerful political institution/force in Pakistan. Its purpose was to test a hypothesis that the colonial authority structure along with partition (1947) oriented structural dynamics provides an important structural construct to explain politics and the military in post-colonial state of Pakistan. To explain and analyse the problem, the study used books, journals, news papers and government documents for quantitative/explanatory analysis. The analysis included the military in the colonial authority structure where the former along with the civil bureaucracy and the landed-feudal class formed an alliance to pursue politico-economic interests in British India. The study also explains and analyses the partition oriented structural dynamics in terms of territory (Kashmir) and population (Indian refugees).The findings proved that these "structural dynamics" affected politics and the military in Pakistan. The theoretical framework in terms of "praetorian oligarchy" is applied to structurally explain colonial politics as well as politics and the military in Pakistan. The study treats Pakistan as a praetorian state which structurally inherited the pre-partition "praetorian oligarchy". This praetorian oligarchy constructed "Hindu India" as enemy to pursue politico-economic interests. The military, a part of praetorian oligarchy, emerges as a powerful political actor due to its coercive power. It seeks political power to pursue economic objectives independently.

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