Precision analysis of 3D camera

University essay from KTH/Geodesi och geoinformatik

Abstract:

Three dimensional mapping is becoming an increasingly attractive product nowadays. Many devices like laser scanner or stereo systems provide 3D scene reconstruction. A new type of active sensor, the Time of Flight (ToF) camera obtains direct depth observations (3rd dimensional coordinate) in a high video rate, useful for interactive robotic and navigation applications. The high frame rate combined with the low weight and the compact design of the ToF cameras constitute an alternative solution of the 3D measuring technology. However a deep understanding of the error involved in the ToF camera observations is essential in order to upgrade their accuracy and enhance the ToF camera performance.

This thesis work addresses the depth error characteristics of the SR4000 ToF camera and indicates potential error models for compensating the impact. In the beginning of the work the thesis investigates the error sources, their characteristics and how they influence the depth measurements. In the practical part, the work covers the above analysis via experiments. Last, the work proposes simple methods in order to reduce the depth error so that the ToF camera can be used for high accuracy applications.  

An overall result of the work indicates that the depth acquired by the Time of Flight (ToF) camera deviates several centimeters, specifically the SR4000 camera provides 35 cm error size for the working range of 1-8 m. After the error compensation the depth offset fluctuates 15cm within the same working range. The error is smaller when the camera is set up close to the test field than when it is further away.

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