Industrial Sheet Metal Forming Simulation with Elastic Dies
Abstract: As part of the development process for new stamping dies, in the automotive sheet metal forming (SMF) industry, the majority of all forming operations are simulated with the Finite Element Method (FEM) before the dies are manufactured. Today, these simulations are conducted with rigid tools under the assumption that there are no tool deformations. However, research shows that tool deformations have an influence on the finished product. In real production these deformations are compensated by manual rework during the try-out. Additional reason for simulating with rigid dies is that there are non-existing simulation methods elaborated for elastic stamping dies. Also, simulation of elastic tools requires high computational power. Since simulations today are performed with rigid stamping dies the purpose of this work is to investigate the conditions of how to conduct SMF-simulations with elastic stamping dies. The object that will be studied is a stamping die for a Volvo XC90 inner door used in a single-action press. This work is part of the development to minimize the manual rework, with the goal to compensate for tool deformations in a virtual environment. Results for rigid stamping dies in LS-Dyna was compared to currently used AutoForm as a pre-study. A simple model was then created to find a suitable method while using elastic stamping dies. The developed method was used for an industrial size stamping die. Since there are little amount of research performed on simulations using elastic stamping dies, elasticity and complexity were gradually introduced into the FE-model. As a first step, only the punch was included as an elastic solid. Secondly, the die was added. Finally, the entire die was simulated as elastic together with the hydraulic cushion of the press. When the FE-model worked as expected a suitable method for minimizing the simulation time with acceptable results was studied. Comparisons of measured- and simulation results show a high correlation. To improve the results from the FE-model factors such as press deformations, advanced friction models, etc. should be included. Conclusions from this work shows that it is possible to perform SMF-simulations with elastic stamping dies. As the computational time normally is high this work also presents a method first step to reduce the computational time with acceptable results. Comparisons between simulations with rigid and elastic stamping dies proves that there are significant differences in the outcome of the two methods.
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